Donald Hedeker, PhD


  • Mixed-effects models for clustered and longitudinal data analysis, especially ordinal outcomes
  • Missing data in longitudinal studies
  • Models for intensive longitudinal data, particularly data from Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) and mHealth studies
  • Software development and computational statistics
  • Tobacco and addictions research


  • Ph.D. (Quantitative Psychology), 1989, University of Chicago
  • B.A. (Economics), 1980, University of Chicago


  • Hedeker D, du Toit SHC, Demirtas H, & Gibbons RD (2017, epub).  A note on marginalization of regression parameters from mixed models of binary outcomes. Biometrics. 
  • Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ, Demirtas H, & Berbaum ML (2016).  A mixed-effects location-scale model for ordinal questionnaire data. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, 16(3):117-131.
  • Hedeker D (2015). Methods for multilevel ordinal data in prevention research. Prevention Science, 16:997-1006.
  • Hedeker, D., Mermelstein, R.J., and Demirtas, H. (2012). Modeling between- and within-subject variance in Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data using mixed-effects location scale models. Statistics in Medicine, 31, 3328-3336.
  • Hedeker, D., Mermelstein, R.J., Berbaum, M.L., and Campbell, R.T. (2009). Modeling mood variation associated with smoking: An application of a heterogeneous mixed-effects model for analysis of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data. Addiction, 104, 297-307.
  • Hedeker, D., Mermelstein RJ, Demirtas H. An application of a mixed-effects location scale model for analysis of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data. Biometrics. 2008;64(2):627-634.
  • Hedeker,D., Mermelstein RJ, Demirtas H. Analysis of binary outcomes with missing data: missing = smoking, last observation carried forward, and a little multiple imputation. Addiction. 2007 Oct;102(10):1564-73.
  • Hedeker, D. (2003). A mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression model. Statistics in Medicine, 22, 1433-1446.
  • Hedeker, D., Siddiqui, O., & Hu, F. B. (2000). Random-effects regression analysis of correlated grouped-time survival data. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 9, 161-179.
  • Hedeker, D. & Mermelstein, R. J. (1998). A multilevel thresholds of change model for analysis of stages of change data. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 33, 427-455.
  • Hedeker, D. & Gibbons, R. D. (1997). Application of random-effects pattern-mixture models for missing data in longitudinal studies. Psychological Methods, 2, 64-78.
  • Hedeker, D. & Gibbons, R. D. (1994). A random-effects ordinal regression model for multilevel analysis. Biometrics, 50, 933-944.

Software Development

  • Hedeker, D. and Nordgren, R. (2013). MIXREGLS: A program for mixed-effects location scale analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 52(12), 1-38.
  • Hedeker, D. (1999). MIXNO: A computer program for mixed-effects nominal logistic regression. Journal of Statistical Software, 4(5):1-92.
  • Hedeker, D. & Gibbons, R. D. (1996). MIXREG: A computer program for mixed-effects regression analysis with autocorrelated errors. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 49, 229-252.
  • Hedeker, D. & Gibbons, R. D. (1996). MIXOR: A computer program for mixed-effects ordinal probit and logistic regression analysis. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 49, 157-176.


  • Hedeker D. & Gibbons R.D. Longitudinal Data Analysis. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.


  • Faculty Director, Biostatistics Laboratory
  • Fellow, American Statistical Association


Don Hedeker's Statistical Methods Website